1.1 Background to the Study
In the world over, human factor (workers) is the most important and highly needed for any organization to achieve its goals and continue to progress (Gbadamosi & Chinaka, 2011). For a worker to be effective in the organization, he or she has to be committed to the job because commitment is to be the driving force behind a person’s success. A person who has committed himself to a task will pursue it until its completion, even if there are few obstacles in the process (Fashola, Akanni & Ajila, 2016).
Workers commitment indicates employee’s emotional affection to, association with and attachment with his organization (Boehman, 2007). In general, it can be considered as tri-dimensional construct consisting of normative, continuance and affective commitments. This means that employees who are affectively committed remain consistent working with immense devotion voluntarily, continuance commitment assures that employees maintain the membership of their organization, however employees who remain normally committed generally sense compulsion on their end to remain in their organization.
Commitment also has an emotional component because people usually experience and express positive feelings towards an entity or individual to whom they have made a commitment (Saxena & Puri, 2015). Finally, commitment has a rational element that make most people consciously decide to make commitments, then they thoughtfully plan and carry out the actions required to fulfill them (Meyer, Becker & Vandenberghe, 2004). There are various components of worker commitment, Saxena and Puri (2015) discuss three major components of workers commitment as believe, willingness and desire. The indicators of employee commitment are accepting the organisational mission, adopting the organisational culture (values and behaviours), feeling and showing a desire to continued membership in the organisation, and exerting maximum effort to achieve the organisational goals (Atak, 2009).
Sreejesh and Tavleen (2011) consider workers commitment as a matter of personal choice, but based on rational judgment. Employees commitment could be influenced by personal and organisational variables. Personal variables include personality types, values, health status, work-family balance, sense of personal achievement in life and general life satisfaction. Organisational variables include perceived organisational politics, pay and benefits, perceived fairness in the organisational system, quality of work condition and the job itself. This study considers perceived organisational politics as predictors of employee’s commitment. According to Danish, Humayon, Aslam, Usman and Tariq (2014), organizational politics is a common and integral feature of organizational life which stems out from the use of power, authority or influence.
Organizational politics refers to the complex mixture of power, influence, behaviour and understanding leadership processes, self-interest behaviour in the organization and is generally related to the situations such as power struggles, conflicts over the sources of power and responsibilities to influence (Vigoda, 2006). According to Sowmya and Panchanatham (2009), organizational politics is behaviour to influence individuals or groups in an organization. Vigoda-Gadot, Vinarski-Peretz, and Ben-Zion (2003) are of the view that when individuals work for their own interests and do not care for the goals of the organization and wellbeing of others these actions indicate organizational politics. Zivnuska, Kacmar, Witt, Carlson and Bratton (2004) stated that there are two elements of organizational politics, which should be considered while investigating workers commitment and organizational politics. Firstly the view and perception of organizational politics has more importance than reality. Secondly, organizational politics might be beneficial for the individual or, it can be disadvantageous for the employee. So it can be concluded that organizational policies and politics can be beneficial for the employees and can be a threat to the carrier as well.
Bodla and Danish (2010) define organizational politics in terms of behaviour and action of individuals in an organization to enhance their performance professional career. According to the researchers, organizational politics work as an antecedent to outcomes of employees. As people act according to the perception of reality, perception of politics is important for the employees in an organization (Boerner, Eisenbeiss & Griesser, 2007). Bodla and Danish (2010) have stated that people can respond to situation according to their perception and real situation could be different from that.
Gallagher and Laird (2008) defined perceived organizational politics as an individual’s view which is normally characterized by colleagues and supervisors demonstrating behaviors that are self-serving. Employees perception of organisational politics had been sharpened by globalization via changing technology, changing work culture, changing work cluster, high demands in job, changing life style and changes in mega environment (Danish, 2000).
A variety of studies have recently pointed to organizational politics as an important antecedent of employees’ commitment, both formal and informal (O’Connor & Morrison, 2001). Most of these studies, and others, have relied on the definition of organizational politics as behavior strategically designed to maximize self-interests and therefore in conflict with the collective organizational goals or the interests of other individuals. From the foregoing, it will be as if organizational politics might not enhance worker commitment. In order to be factual and reduce inconsistent in the study of perceived organizational politics and workers commitment, this study will be carried out.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today every individual is logging for getting into the organization and motto behind that is clear, one avails many benefits without facing any dire consequences of not doing the job properly. In the last few years it has been observed that the devotion of an employee towards organization is getting lesser day by day. Even the complaints regarding organizational politics which includes various organizational factors, have quadrupled in number. Organizational commitment and politics found to be correlated in some studies and not in others (Saxena & Puri, 2015). Thus to make the condition of organizations better, study need to be conducted to solve the issues which employees and the organization as a whole are facing in giving their hundred percent to each other.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objectives of this study is to investigate perceived organizational politics and workers commitment. The specific objectives are:
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide this study
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated and will be tested in this study.
H0: There is no significant relationship between perceived organisational politics and worker commitment.
H1: There is significant relationship between perceived organisational politics and worker commitment.
H0: There is no significant difference between male and female workers in reference to perceived organizational politics and workers commitment.
H1: There is significant difference between male and female workers in reference to perceived organizational politics and workers commitment.
This study shall adopt a survey research design method. The research design was adopted because of its appropriateness in describing the current situation of phenomenon. The population of the study consists of the entire academic staff in Olabisi Onabanjo University. The prime instrument used in this study is a questionnaire. Descriptive statistic of simple percentage will be used to analysed the demographic data and items on the questionnaire while inferential statistics of Pearson Correlation Coefficient and regression analysis will be used to analysed hypotheses one and two respectively.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study may help to find that is there any link between organizational commitment and organizational politics which as a result affects their efficiency, or both factors are independent of each other and problems related to each of them need to be dealt in different ways. On the basis of gender keeping these factors in mind it would be easy to find out existing problems from roots and solution would be given accordingly. The results can make governing bodies more efficient and reliable.
This research will provide information to employee’s about how efficient political skills will improve or reduce commitment.
Other students who intend to work on a similar topic will find information of this study useful in carrying out their research.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This scope of the study will cover perceived organizational politics and workers commitment. The study shall cover the entire management level of academic staff of Olabisi Onabanjo University.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Politics: This is the process of making uniform decisions applying to all staffs or employee of an organization
Organizational Politics: This are informal, unofficial and sometimes behind-the scene efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives.
Workers Commitment: This can be referred as employee emotional attachment with organization.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This study will comprised of five chapter. That is, from chapter one to chapter five. The first chapter which is the chapter one is the introductive part. The chapter discusses the background to the study, statement of problem, research objective, research questions, statement of hypotheses, scope of the study and so on.
Chapter two which is the literature review will review relevant articles, journals and textbooks that have been written on the topic. The chapter will be discussed un conceptual review, theoretical review and it will also discuss the historical background of the organization.
Chapter three is the methodology. In most cases, it is the heart of the research work. This chapter will discuss the methods that will be used in carrying out the study. Some of the sub-heading that will reviewed under this chapter are the research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, model specification and method of data analysis.
Chapter four is the data presentation and interpretation of result. This chapter will give the statistical representation of the data generated from field. It will also discuss the findings of the study.
Chapter five which is the concluding part of the study will focus on summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation. The study will be concluded based on the finding of the study and recommendation will be made based on the conclusion of the study.