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1.1       Background to the Study

Transportation improves the development of any community of people around the world because it helps the movement of people, allows for best use of useful things, valuable supplies and provides access to areas up until now unable to be used (Ojeleye and Okojie, 2017). The provision of transport infrastructure has grown extensively across the globe through a range of networks of modes which have undergone technological improvements cutting across the motive power, the tracks as well as the means which serve as compartment for passengers and goods (Gbadamosi and Oluwaseyi, 2017). It is also a key player in the transfer and distribution of goods from the input points through the manufacturing line to the customers (Badejo, 2002). Perhaps, this led to the assertion that there is no escape from transport since it is a keystone of civilization.

The importance to the socio economic, political and cultural development of any nation is underscored by Munby’s (2008) statement that “there is no escape from transport”. In rural and urban area of Nigeria, transportation is mostly by road and of the trips made by vehicles, seventy percent are done through the people and businesses that are not part of the government ruled public transport (Oyesiku, 2002). The collapse of public transport framework cleared the route for the ascent of the motorcycle and tricycles as a method for public transportation in Nigeria. They are utilised for public transportation in most Nigerian towns and urban communities. The introduction of motorcycle popularly called ‘Okada’ as an alternative mode of transport in urban centers was prompted by the high cost and inevitable transport service provision which impacted negatively on economic activities and mobility of the urban populace. Of particular interest is the fact that increasing demand for public transport has not been able to match the level of provision of transport services. The situation is also worsened by the increasing level of poverty of urban residents in Nigeria (Gbadamosi, 2006).

In the past decade, there has seen significant growth in the use of motorcycle and ownership in Nigeria which has significant impacts on the socio-economic facets on the people’s lives (Oni, 2003). Recently, the introduction of the tricycle mode of transportation has not only improved the socio-economic life of the people but has also created employment for the timing unemployed youths especially in the present situation where unemployment has been the other of the day (Jack, 2016).

According to Dawson (2009), motorbikes are a means of transport used to move from one place to another. With the policy of liberalisation of public transport by the government of Nigeria in the early 1960s, commercial motorbikes were introduced in Nigerian cities and progressively into rural areas. The introduction and proliferation of these commercial motorbikes in the urban and rural Nigeria has come to influence the mode of life of its population which generally had the habit to move from one village to another by trekking and today uses motorbikes to move from one village to another (Gbujie, 2003).

More so, this population that lives on agriculture in the cultivation of cash and food crops in the likes of cocoa, coffee, cocoyam, cassava and plantains; with the production of these products constituting references of wealth and prestige has also drifted in the riding and ownership of commercial motorbikes becoming a ready source of income and a new sign of wealth and prestige amongst the people of Abraka (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006). More so, the activity has introduced new jobs as motorbike spare part retailers and Motorbike mechanics. These changes in perception and activity have come to change the socio-cultural organization of the Abraka society (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006).

In many developing countries, motorcycles and tricycles are increasingly becoming the common means of transport especially among low-income urban dwellers (urban poor) and many rural people (Jean-Paul and Theo Notteboom, 2013). The high ownership and use of motorcycle and tricycle in the urban areas in Nigeria especially in Abraka has come with its accompanying challenges like motorcycle and tricycles accidents involving fatalities; environmental and public health concerns from the emissions; non-compliance to motor traffic regulations-for instance helmet use is generally low in Nigeria among others among other things. The high incidence of motorcycle ownership and use has also been contributing significantly in the betterment of many livelihoods of urban residents in Nigeria and at the instance of Abraka (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006).

According to Oluwaseyi, Edward, Eyinda and Okoko (2014), the annual production of motorcycles in the world is put at about 45 million with the growth rate in Africa, being between about 12% – 30%. For instance, in Nigeria, the government’s inability to provide conventional mode of transport has necessitated the use of motorcycles (two-wheeled automobiles) and tricycles (three-wheeled automobiles) to move people, goods and services from one point to another under conditions considered to be unsafe and accident prone (Oni, Fashina and Olagunju, 2011).

Tricycle also remains to be a sound alternative for those who cannot access a more convenient ride to their destination. More so, it also provides additional income and employment for those who do not have a formal job. Tricycle transportation in Nigeria was introduced in some major cities in the country and had even became alternative mode of transportation in urban cities of the nation where other modes of transportation like cars are found inaccessible due to poor terrain or even a complete absence of motorable roads (Cervero, 2000).

Another benefit of the commercial tricycle business which was not appreciated by most people was the fact that since the riders followed people door to door, the simple exercise of walking from one’s gate to the nearest bus stop was no longer undertaken and of course it was convenient (Chepchieng, 2012). The type of motorized vehicle people acquire often comes down to household economics without much consideration given to social costs. In terms of affordability, in Ago-Iwoye, for example, the retail price of a two-wheeler ranges from N50 to N200, depending on the location, while that of tricycle ranged from N50 to N100.

In many towns and cities, motorcycles and tricycles have uprooted the utilisation of automobile for public intra-city transportation (Ojeleye and Okojie, 2017). One truth that must be told is that numerous unemployed young people and retired individuals have discovered gainful employment in the motorcycle and tricycle business. Some of the individuals who are gainfully employed in the taxpayer driven organisation still work at motorcycle and tricycle business either as owners or riders in order to increase their normal salary with whatever they can make from these business (Olubomehin, 2012). Thus, hundreds of riders are barely trained and untrained; usually flock the roads of major cities and townships as well as rural areas carrying luggages and conveying people to their destinations.

It is noteworthy to mention that majority of the commuters use buses, taxis and tricycles for movement. The increased in human population, particularly those residing in areas far away from the city centre needs the services of flexible mode of transportation. Some passengers however prefer tricycle to motorcycle as a result of its relative affordability, availability and safety (Sun, 2009). However, motorcycles and tricycles businesses have contributed to easy movement of people not only in the rural areas where there is poor network of roads but also in the cities where there are traffic hold-ups with its attendant consequences. These include accidents, increasing incidences of the use of okada and keke napep for nefarious activities like robbery and the likes. Much has been said and written on these vices but little attention has been paid to the submergence of socio-economic characteristics of Okade and Keke napep riders.

Socio-economic factors include, income, savings, education, contribution to human development, societal development, health and others determine the standard of living of a being (Agbaje and Bolaji, 2013). Business Dictionary (2016) defines socioeconomic characteristics of a population expressed statistically, such as age, sex, education level, income level, marital status, occupation, religion, birth rate, death rate, average size of a family, average age at marriage. A census is a collection of the demographic factors associated with every member of a population.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Nigeria is a country endowed with unquantifiable natural and human resources but the quest for survival economically and socially has driven many Nigerians into various jobs including riding of commercial motorcycle and tricycle popularly known as ‘Okada’ and ‘Keke Napep’ business respectively.

Onifade, Aduradola and Amao (2012) investigated the effects of socioeconomic survival of Okada riders in Abeokuta and Odeda Local Government Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria but these study failed to consider the income of the motorcycle riders. It also focused on the safety of the rider and neglected to observe if the riders are trained before engaging in the business of motorcycles. Also, the study did not compare the socioeconomic status of tricycle

On the part of Ojeleye and Okojie (2017), they consider the socio-economic such as income, personal savings, age and belief system of commercial motorcycle riders popularly known as Okada riders and poverty level in Gusau metropolis, Zamfara state but this study failed to look at gender. It is interesting to know recently that female are increasingly engaging in the business of motorcycles and tricycles.

Previous studies in the operation of commercial motorcycle in Nigeria, such as Adeniji (1983); Ogunsanya and Galtima (1993); Adesanya (1996); Adeyemo (1998); Ojekunle (1998) and Ogunrinola (2011) do not thoroughly examine the core determinants of earnings among commercial motorcycle operators. However, Arosanyin (2010) attempted to bridge this gap by examining the determinants of earnings among commercial motorcyclist but the study did not consider the difference in earning of commercial motorcycles operators and tricycle operators.

Abdussalam and Wahab (2014) studied the impact of “Commercial motorcycle/tricycle in reducing poverty but the study failed to state the socio-economic characteristics of the motorcycle/tricycle riders. This would have helped to know the type of individuals that engage in motorcycle/tricycle businesses.

The foregoing makes it imperative to ask the following questions:

  1. What are the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, academic qualification, personal income per week and personal saving per week) of commercial motorcycle and tricycle riders.
  2. What are the various reason for engaging in commercial motorcycle and tricycle business?
  3. What is the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, academic qualification, occupation and monthly income) of commercial motorcycle and tricycle passengers?
  4. Do passengers have special preference for motorcycles than tricycles?
  5. What is the operational pattern of commercial motorcycles and tricycles?



1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to comparatively analyse motorcycle and tricycle operation in Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State. The objectives are to:

  1. Analyse the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, academic qualification, personal income per week and personal saving per week) of commercial motorcycle and tricycle riders.
  2. Investigate the various reason for engaging in commercial motorcycle and tricycle business.
  3. Analyse the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, academic qualification, occupation and monthly income) of commercial motorcycle and tricycle passengers.
  4. To analyse passengers preference for motorcycles and tricycles.
  5. To examine the operational pattern of commercial motorcycles and tricycles.

1.4       Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and will be tested in the study.

Ho1:     There is no significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age,     academic qualification, personal income per week and personal saving per week) of          commercial motorcycle riders and tricycle riders.

Ho2:     There is no significant difference in the reasons of motorcycle riders and tricycle rider    for engaging the business.

Ho3:     There is no significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age,     academic qualification, occupation and monthly income) of commercial motorcycle      and tricycle passengers.

Ho4:     There is no significant difference in passengers’ preference for motorcycles and             tricycles.

Ho5:     There is no significant difference in the operational pattern of commercial motorcycles    and tricycles.

1.5       Significance of the Study

This study will enhance the knowledge and awareness of some of the socio-economic variables that can have impact on commercial motorcycles and tricycles morbidity. This study will draw the attention of stakeholders and government in particular to pay attention to this tax driven informal sector which serve as a form of employment and income generation to many homes which will enhance the operation of motorcycle and tricycle riders in Ago-Iwoye. It will also provide knowledge and database on the socioeconomic characteristics of commercial motorcycle and tricycle riders in Ago-Iwoye.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The scope of this study cover comparative analysis of motorcycle and tricycle operation in Ago-Iwoye, Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study shall cover the socioeconomic characteristics such as gender, age, academic qualification, personal income per week and personal saving per week. It will also look at the reason why individuals engage in motorcycle and tricycle operation.

1.7       The Study Area

1.7.1    Geographical Location of Ago-Iwoye

The study area is located within latitude 06° 57′ 6.6”-06° 57’ 14’’ and longitude 003° 54′ 27.8”-003° 54’46.1”. It falls within the subequatorial tropical region of the world. The city is made up of seven strategic districts which each and every quarters has his own oba known as king include (The Lewu of Idode kingdom,) (Obamowo of Imere kingdom,) (Obaruwa of Isamuro kingdom,) and The paramount ruler Ebumawe of Ago iwoye Ibipe, (The Oso Olu of Imososi kingdom) (The Mefu of Igan kingdom,) and The Sapenuwa of Imosu kingdom. above all Oba Abdulrazak Adenugba is the current Ebumawe (monarch) of Ago-Iwoye . The state-owned university, Olabisi Onabanjo University, 1982, is in this city.

1.7.2    Climate and Vegetation

The area is within the tropical humid climatic zone of Ogun state, Nigeria which generally characterized, by high rainfall and high relative humidity. This is attributable to the prevalence of moisture laden tropical Maritime air mass over the state for about nine months in a year. The rainfall shows a double maxima distribution reaching the peak during the months of June and September. The average monthly rainfall for the state ranges between 7.1mm in the month of January to 208.27mm in the month of June. The mean annual temperature is 26°C; although with some variations over time. The mean diurnal minimum temperature varies from 21.80cin December to 24.34°C in April while the mean diurnal maximum temperature varies from 33.92°C to 37.1°C at the onset of the wet season (March and April).

On the basis of climatic features, the area is characterized by two distinct weather seasons: the wet and dry. The wet season marked by lower mean temperature, higher total rainfall and higher relative humidity is usually experienced between the months of February and October. However, little dry season is sometimes experienced in August, a phenomenon characterized by drastic reduction in the frequency and intensity of rainfall and referred to as August break. The dry season sets in by November and persists till the end of January. It is usually accomplished by harmattan cold, brought by the prevailing north-west winds.

The vegetation is of a swampy type with mangroves and other edaphic trees. There is also rainforest vegetation in some section of the area while it is also characterized by derived forest vegetation, having been altered by human activities.

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