1.1 Background to the Study
There have been a series of amendment in the Nigerian educational system policies and programmes (Daura and Audu, 2015). Majority of these amendments are because of improper planning and implementation among other issues. The most recent policy that was introduced in 1999 was the Universal Basic Education which emphasize on provision of qualitative education by ensuring uninterrupted access to the nine years free and compulsory basic education for every child of school age (Offor, 2016).
Universal Basic Education is the educational activities that children, youth and adults participate; it is a nine years free and compulsory education programme. It comprised six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary education. One of its fundamental principles is that everybody must have access to equivalent education comprehensively and co-educationally. The objectives of the Universal Basic Education programme are to develop the entire Nigerian citizen with a strong consciousness for education and strong commitment to its vigorous promotion; provide free Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school going age and reduced drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system; cater for the young persons and other out of school children or adolescents through appropriate form of complementary approaches to the universal basic education (Ojukwu, 2006).
The federal government of Nigeria therefore provided some strategic guidelines to ensure the realization of these objectives, and they include: public enlightenment and social mobilization for full community involvement; data collection and analysis of human and material resources; planning, monitoring and evaluation; teacher recruitment, education, training, re-training, motivation; provision of infrastructural facilities; provision of enriched curricula; provision of textbooks and instructional materials; improved funding; and management of the entire process of the UBE programme (FRN, 2004).
According to Daura and Daudu (2015), it is a normal thing for the Federal government of Nigeria not to implement policies due to improper planning. Assessment is examining all or some aspects of a thing, object or programme in order to detect areas of strengths, improvement, review or outright drop. Assessing the success of the UBE programme is therefore very important as the assessment will serve as guide and check on the implementation. Yoloye (2004) states that, in view of the government commitment to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate national development, political consciousness and national integration, government decided to adopt the UBE Programme. Onele (2011) acknowledged that, for any education policy to be properly implemented, financial funding is a key factor.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Due to several problems arising from implementation of government policy, there is need for investigation into the problems related to Universal Basic Education implementation.
1.3 Research Questions
i. To what extent is public enlightenment and social mobilization for community involved in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Ogun State?
ii. To what extent are the quality and quantity of teachers provided for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Ogun State?
iii. To what extent are the quantity and quality of infrastructural facilities provided for effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Ogun State?
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be beneficial to the following stakeholders: Ministry of Education; educational planners; teachers; parents; government policy makers and researchers. The findings will assist the Government of Ogun State to identify the likely limitations in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme and take appropriate actions to remedy the situation. It provides a guide for action to take in meeting the challenges in implementing the UBE programme in Ogun State.
The findings will alert the state Ministry of Education to the need for monitoring the programme, provision of adequate staffing and infrastructural facilities in schools for the proper implementation of the UBE programme.
Also, findings of this study will benefit educational planners as they will provide the basis for a review of the UBE programme. The study is expected to serve as a springboard for further research works not only in the Universal Basic Education Programme but also in education generally.
1.5 Scope of Study
The scope of this study cover the secondary schools in Ogun State. Secondary school principals and vice principals will be the respondents of this study. The study will be delimited to secondary schools in Ijebu-north local government area.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Education: Education is the sum total of culture values and attitude which each generation systematically transmit to those who are desirable, adapt this continuously to meet the exigencies of changing times.
Policy: Policy is view as a projected program of goal values and practices.
Implementation: Implementation literally means carrying out, accomplishing, fulfilling, producing or completing a given task.
UBE: Universal Basic Education is the educational activities that children, youth and adults. It is a nine years free and compulsory education programme.