This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of fresh and fermented garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on four clinical bacterial namely; Bacillus subtils, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aereus. The samples of garlic were extracted fresh and dried at 24hours and 5days in water using standard extraction procedure. The extracts were tested on the bacteria at different concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml respectively. The results showed that the extract of fresh garlic at 24hours was found to be more active than that of dried garlic at 24hours and that both fresh and dried extracts at 5days (fermented) have relatively effects on the clinical bacteria. The Gram- positive antibiotic disc against the bacteria species revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus were observed to be very sensitive to the Gram- positive disc. Enterococcus faecalis however showed the highest degree of sensitivity (23mm and 21mm) to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, also S.aureus showed a high degree of sensitivity (19mm and 19mm) to cefdinir and augumenti while other bacteria species showed variation in their sensitivity to the antibiotic disc. This revealed that the extracts of Allium sativum posses antimicrobial compounds which could be used as substitutes for the antibiotics. The combination of the extracts and the antibiotics (Erythromycin, Ciprotab and Septrin) was more active than the extract alone on the tested organisms. The Phytochemical screening of the extracts showed that Allium sativum contains important compounds such as Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides, Proteins, Reducing sugar, Flavonoids and Terperoids. Volatile oils were, however, not detected in the extracts under the conditions of this study. The significance of these results was discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Objectives of the study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Garlic (Allium sativum)
2.2.1 Harvest and Storage
2.3 Chemistry of Garlic 2.3.1 Biological Effects
2.4 Potential Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic 2.4.1 Antimicrobial Potential 2.4.2 Antifungal Potential
2.4.3 Antihelmentic Potential 2.4.4 Anticoagulant and Fibrinolytic Potential
2.5 Health Benefits of Garlic (Allium sativum)
2.5.1 Cardiovascular Disease
2.6 Side Effects/Contraindications
2.7.1 Hardneck cultivars
2.7.2 Soft neck cultivars 2.8 Clinical bacteria 2.8.1 Enterococcus faecalis 2.8.2 Staphylococcus aureus
2.8.3 Bacillus cereus
2.8.4 Bacillus subtilis
3.0 Materials and Methodology
3.3 Inoculation of Garlic on Bioassay
3.4 Test Microorganisms
3.5 Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing
3.6 Synergism of extract with antibiotics
3.7 Phytochemical Screening
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion
LIST OF TABLES
1 Zones of inhibition (mm) of fresh A. sativum on the test organisms at 24 hours.
2 Zones of inhibition (mm) of dried A. sativum on the test organisms at 24 hours.
3 Antibacteria Sensitivity Testing.
4 Zones of inhibition (mm) of fresh fermented of A. sativum on the test organisms at 5 days.
5 Zones of inhibition (mm) of fermented dried A. sativum on the test organisms at 5 days.
6 The effects of the combination of fresh A. sativum extract and antibiotics on the test organisms.
7 Qualitative phytochemical screening of garlic extracts.
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1-4: The Antimicrobial Effects of Allium sativum on Bacterial Species.